Notes on R:

A Programming Environment for

Data Analysis and Graphics

Bill Venables & Dave Smith

Department of Statistics
The University of Adelaide

Robert Gentleman & Ross Ihaka

Department of Statistics
University of Auckland

© W. Venables, 1990, 1992.
© R. Gentleman & R. Ihaka, 1997.


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These notes on . are derived from an original set of notes describing the . and . environments written by Bill Venables and Dave Smith. We have made a number of small changes to relect differences between the . and . programs.

. is an ongoing project and its capabilities do not presently match those of S. IN these notes we have adopted the convention that any feature that we intend to implement is noted as such at the beginning of the section where the feature is described. Users can contribute to the project by implementing any of these that remain.

We would like to extend warm thanks to Bill Venables for granting permission to distributed this modified version of the notes in this way, and for being a supporter of . from way back.

Comments and corrections are always welcome. Please address email correspondence to

Suggestions to the reader

Most . novices will start with the introductory session in Appendix A. This should give some familiarity with the style of . sessions and more importantly some instant feedback on what actually happens.

Many users will come to . mainly for its graphical facilities. In this case section [*] on the graphics facilities can be read at almost any time and need not wait until all the preceding sections have been digested.

Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka, University of Auckland, April, 1997.


Jeff Banfield